The population is always a key actor in crises and disasters, both as the affected and as the very first source of response. Resilience concepts namely need to be developed for critical infrastructures, but also for the wider public to integrate and address human and social dynamics in crises and disaster situations, including the role of the population, the media, rescuers (staff, volunteers and ad-hoc volunteers).


Critical Infrastructure functions are technologically and operationally interconnected, of which their exact possibilities and potential risks need to be better understood. Security solutions must take into account that an adversary has a physical access to smart meters. These devices’ cost, power, memory, and computational limitations restrict the ability to deploy standard trusted platform modules on them. Due to the fact that smart meters will be deployed for many years, novel cryptographic solutions should be tested that include message encryption, authentication and integrity, along with the highest possible levels of efficiency in time-critical and high volume data.


The expected increase of frequency and severity of climate-related natural catastrophes and the current risks of disasters of geological origin pose a serious threat to buildings and physical assets located in vulnerable locations, including critical infrastructures. Cascade failure of interconnected infrastructure assets (installations for energy, transport, water, ICT) due to colocation or hub-functions needs to be avoided.